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1.1. Environmental threats


The pictures above illustrate some of the global environmental threats that the world faces nowadays, among those threats are:

Atmospheric emissions – Sending out to the atmosphere chemicals or biological materials that cause disease or death to humans and damage other living organisms and the natural environment.

  • Chemical discharges – Toxic chemicals used at industrial facilities and released as waste into the sea.
  •  Climate changes – A warmer climate, with rising temperatures and the melting of glaciers, and more frequent extremes phenomena such as floods and droughts.
  • Energy consumption – A significant growth in the energy used, causing serious environmental problems such as global warming emissions.
  • Deforestation – Cutting down trees in large areas, disrupting the natural balance of ecological systems.
  • Overfishing – Catching too many fish in an area of the sea.
  • Overpopulation – When the number of people in a group exceeds the carrying capacity of the region occupied by the group. This is a reality in some parts of the world (for example in China and India) contrasting to others where desertification is a problem (for example Somalia and Ethiopia).
  • Ozone depletion – Destruction, and consequent reduction, of the ozone layer, caused by global pollution, provoking an increase in UVB radiation.
  • Pollution – Littering, soil contamination, noise, air and water pollution are different forms of pollution.
  • Raw sewage – Untreated waste matter, such as human urine or solid waste, pumped into the sea.
  • Soil erosion – By wind or water flow, soil and rock are removed from the Earth's surface and then transported and deposited in other locations.
  • Toxic wastes – Dangerous wastes, that may be liquid or solid and contain chemicals, radiation or other toxins, from farming, construction, laboratories, hospitals, and other industries.
  • Water shortages – A situation in which there is not enough water because the available potable water in a region is less than the region's demand.